How to Find Out Arabica Coffee Beans

Arabica coffee is considered to have better quality than other types. This can be seen from the relatively higher selling price. Arabica coffee only grows and produces optimally when grown in the highlands.

Arabica coffee comes from mountainous forests in Ethiopia, Africa. In their natural habitat, this plant grows under the canopy of lush tropical forests. Arabica coffe is grown in plains with an altitude above 500 meters above sea level.

Arabica coffee will grow optimally if it is planted at an altitude of 1000-2000 meters above sea level. With rainfall ranging from 1200-2000 mm per year. The most suitable environmental temperature for this plant ranges from 15-24oC. This plant cannot withstand temperatures near freezing below 4oC.

Read too: Complete Coffee Information

To flower and produce fruit, the Arabica coffee plant requires a dry period of 4-5 months a year. Usually, Arabica trees will flower at the end of the rainy season. If a flower that has just bloomed is hit by heavy rain, it will cause fruit failure.

Arabica coffee likes soil rich in organic matter. These organic materials are used by plants for a source of nutrition and maintain moisture. The acidity level of soil pH desired by Arabica coffe ranges from 5.5 to 6.

PLANT CHARACTERISTICS

The structure of the short arabica coffee plant resembles a shrub with a height of 2-3 meters. Stems stand upright with a rounded shape. The arabica coffee tree has many branches.

Shiny green arabica coffee leaves have a waxy finish. The old leaves are dark green. Leaf shape elongated or oval with tapered leaf tips. The base of the leaves is blunt and has a short stalk. Leaf bone structure is pinnate.

Arabica coffee starts flowering after the rainy season. Flowers grow on the axillary. Arabica coffe flowers are white and can self-pollinate, there is no difference between male and female flowers. From bud to fruit that is ready to harvest, it takes 8-11 months.

The shape of the Arabica coffe fruit is round like an egg, with a green fruit color then turns bright red when ripe. When the fruit is ripe it tends to fall off easily. Therefore, it must be harvested immediately, for details please read how to harvest coffee cherries. Fruit that falls to the ground will experience a decrease in quality, tends to smell of soil.

Arabica coffe trees have deep supporting roots. Use these deep roots to support the tree so it doesn’t collapse easily and withstand drought conditions. Root growth is determined since the tree is removed from the nursery. Trees whose roots do not grow well will interfere with productivity.

ARABIC COFFEE VARIETIES

There are many varieties of Arabica coffe grown. Each variety has different growth and adaptability. The choice of varieties in Arabica coffee cultivation should be adapted to the environmental conditions in which it is cultivated.

To get optimal results, use high yielding varieties from trusted sources. Some of them are as follows:

  1. S 795. This variety has a productivity of 1000-1500 kg/ha at a planting density of 1600-2000 trees per hectare. Flowering begins at the age of 15-24 months. Somewhat resistant to leaf rust attack when planted at an altitude of more than 1000 meters above sea level.
  2. USDA 762. Arabica coffe productivity of this type reaches 800-12000 kg/ha. Flowering begins at the age of 32-34 months. Somewhat resistant to leaf rust disease.
  3. Andong sari-1. Productivity around 350 kg/ha. Flowering begins at the age of 15-24 months. When planted at an altitude of less than 900 meters, this variety is susceptible to leaf rust attack but is quite resistant to planting in less fertile areas.
  4. Sigarar Debt. Productivity reaches 1500 kg per hectare. The specialty of Arabica coffe varieties is that they can bear fruit continuously following the rain distribution pattern. The seeds are large, susceptible to powders and nematodes, but moderately resistant to leaf rust. It is recommended to be planted at an altitude above 1000 meters above sea level. END PRODUCT CHARACTERISTICS

Read too: Complete Coffee Information

In general, Arabica coffee is valued higher than other types. In terms of taste, Arabica coffe has a wide range of flavors. Each Arabica coffe variety grown in different places will have a significant difference in taste.

Arabica coffee has a strong aroma, mild to medium viscosity, and high acidity. Also, the caffeine content of Arabica coffe is lower than robusta, which is around 0.8-1.5%.

ARABIC COFFEE TRADING

More than 65% of the world’s coffee trade is dominated by Arabica. Apart from dominating the market share, currently, Arabica coffee is valued almost twice as much as Robusta. Arabica coffee trading center is on the New York commodity exchange.

The largest Arabica coffe producers are in Latin American countries. Nearly 90% of coffee production in Latin American countries is Arabica. Brazil is the world’s largest producer of Arabica coffee. Meanwhile, the world’s largest coffee consumers are European Union countries, followed by the United States and Japan.

Read too: Complete Coffee Information

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