Type of coffee beans, based on species and consumed by people around the world are:
- Robusta or canephora.
In addition to these three types, coffee is also distinguished based on the region where it grows. For example, the following coffee from various regions in Indonesia:
- Java preanger.
Coffee is also distinguished based on how it is made so that it becomes a beverage. The types of coffee drinks are divided into two, espresso-based drinks and manuals.
Some popular types of espresso:
Some popular types of manual drinks:
- Moka Pot.
- Presso skirt.
- Coffee is brewed.
- Vietnamese drops.
Each type of coffee has its own uniqueness. This diversity makes it loved by audiences around the world. Therefore, it will be much more fun if you drink it while knowing the types of coffee in the world.
It is unfortunate if the coffee you drink just passes by without knowing what type. In fact, the diversity of characters and tastes is very interesting to explore.
This article will discuss the types of coffee from several points of view. Type of coffee, by some people, can refer to the species, variety, single-origin, character of taste, to how to brew.
Actually there is nothing wrong, but the type of word does have an ambiguous meaning. According to the KBBI, a type of word can mean something that has special characteristics, or also commonly called a type. Types can also refer to species, the level of classification in biological taxonomies.
If you want more detailed information about coffee, you should read the following article until it runs out. If only, it can increase your knowledge about the types of coffee.
The term type of coffee is often used to classify coffee based on taste, origin, and even variety.
Biologically, word types refer to taxonomic classifications, namely species. Members in a species if interbreeding can produce fertile offspring without reproductive constraints.
Apart from species, we also know the term variety, which is a secondary taxonomic ranking below species. A variety shows a distinctive appearance that is different from other varieties, but will intersect with other varieties.
There are three types of types of coffee that are popularly consumed by the public, namely arabica, robusta, and liberika. Look at the following explanation.
Arabica coffee is the first coffee found in Ethiopia, then by Arabs who spread throughout the world. Because of the role of the Arabs, the name was given the scientific name Coffea arabica.
Arabica is the most popular universe. About 70% of the coffee trade in the world is dominated by Arabica, the rest is Robusta, Liberika, and other types of coffee. The price is also more expensive because the maintenance and cultivation of plants is not easy.
The characteristic of Arabica is the steeping color that is not too thick. In addition, the acidity is higher than the caffeine it contains.
This type is the most popular because it can give birth to several varieties with unique and different scents. Compared to other types of coffee, Arabica has a richer and richer aroma.
There are at least two well-known Arabica coffee varieties and are the mother of the varieties that are spread throughout the world.
Typica is the oldest arabica coffee variety taken from Ethiopia. It can be said that this variety is the parent of the most existing Arabica variety. It is said that the first coffee brought by the Dutch to Indonesia was typica.
b. Bourbon Alcohol Drinks
This variety was born from Arabica which was brought by France from Yemen and planted on Bourbon Island (now La Reunion Island). Because it interacts with various climates and soils, this arabica plant also mutates and becomes a bourbon variety.
If classified according to taxonomy, Robusta coffee is actually one of the subspecies of Coffea canephora, namely Coffea canephora var. Robusta There are at least two main varieties of Coffea canephora, namely Robusta and Nganda. However, because most types of canephora coffee grown are Robusta varieties, the name Robusta is also commonly used to refer to Canephora.
The name robusta is taken from the word robust which means strong. Although this plant is more resistant to pests and is easily treated, its fruit quality is lower than Arabica. The price is relatively cheaper.
Indonesia itself is one of the largest robusta coffee producers after Vietnam and Brazil. More than 80% of Indonesia’s coffee production is Robusta.
Historically, Robusta was imported to Indonesia by the Dutch to replace Arabica production which at that time was attacked by leaf rust pests. Robusta comes with better resistance to pests.
Robusta is strong, rough, and tends to be earthy and nutty. The taste is even more bitter compared to other types of coffee. This makes it very suitable to be a drink with a mixture of other ingredients such as milk and chocolate because the taste of the coffee will not lose.
Robusta is not like arabica which is developed so much that its varieties are few. However, there are several varieties born from a cross between Robusta and Arabica. The crossing is expected to produce plants that smell arabica but have durability as strong as Robusta.
The following are varieties of Arabica crosses with robusta that are popular. The results of crossing involving these two types are often also called hybrid varieties.
Timor variety, also known as hibrido de timor, is a cross between Arabica and Robusta coffee types. The name Timor is taken from the place where this plant was developed, namely Timor Island. The purpose of this cross is to produce coffee that is resistant to pests but has a quality taste and aroma like Arabica.
Catimor is the result of a crossing between chess and timor varieties. This hybrid variety is expected to inherit the good character of the pest-resistant timor and harvest speed from chess. Like timor that contains robusta, catimor has a bitter and nutty taste with a low acidity.
Lay connoisseurs might already be familiar with Robusta and Arabica coffee types along with their respective characters. Actually, there is one more type of coffee that is produced and become a commodity in the world, namely Coffea liberica or coffee liberika.
The size of liberika fruit is bigger than arabica and robusta. However, after the drying process, the weight of the dried fruit is only 10% of the wet weight.
The weight loss is certainly not preferred by farmers because the cost of harvesting becomes more expensive, so that production is not as busy as Arabica and Robusta. Therefore, the level of liberal production is the lowest of the other types, only around 1-2% of world coffee production.
There is one liberal variety that was originally considered to be one species of its own, namely excelsa. In 2006, Excelsa was then inaugurated as a subspecies of liberika and is known by the scientific name Coffea liberica var. dewerei.
Types of Indonesian Single Origin Coffee Worldwide
In addition to the species and varieties above, some people also use the term coffee type to refer to a single origin. Some laypeople do not understand what a single origin is so it is more familiar with the term type of coffee. Do you know what single-origin is?
Single-origin is a term that refers to the area of cultivation from which coffee is planted. This term intends to make it easier for people to recognize the character of their coffee.
The same coffee variety if grown in different areas can produce different tastes. Because each region has a distinctive character and taste in its coffee, the term single originated. The following are examples of popular single-origin from Indonesia.
Gayo coffee is grown in Tanah Gayo, an area in the form of a plateau in Central Aceh, Sumatra. The coffee plantations are in the hills surrounding Takengon City and Lake Tawar. The soil in this area is believed to be very fertile, producing coffee with rich flavors.
In 2010, Gayo Coffee received a Fair Trade Certified from the Fair Trade Coffee International Organization. Previously, there was a ban on the use of the name Gayo because the name had already been patented by a Dutch company, Holland Coffee. However, due to the community’s efforts to obtain a Geographical Indication Certificate, the problem was resolved well.
Sidikalang is one of the regions in Sumatra which is a famous producer of Indonesian coffee. The name may already be familiar to lovers of single-origin coffee.
Besides being known as single-origin, sidikalang coffee is also known as one of the varieties of Arabica coffee. That said, sidikalang is a variety directly derived from typica which was born in Indonesia from the first coffee seeds brought by the Dutch and cultivated with the Cultivation System. Its name is taken from a city located in a cool mountainous area in Dairi Regency, North Sumatra.
Mandailing Coffee is one type of arabica coffee grown in Mandailing Natal Regency, precisely in the mountains of Bukit Barisan, North Sumatra. This Indonesian coffee-producing region has been operating since the 1800s, starting with the Cultivation System that was launched by the Netherlands Indies Government.
4. Java Preanger
This java preanger coffee is often referred to as priangan coffee and malabar coffee. This Java Preanger is the first coffee in Indonesia imported by the Netherlands or VOC. First planted in Batavia (now Jakarta), then widely cultivated in Priangan, West Java.
The preanger’s name is taken from the way the Dutch call Priangan. Therefore, Indonesian people also call priangan coffee as java preanger.
5. Bali Kintamani
In addition to tourism, Bali also has an attraction to coffee in the eyes of the world. The main coffee producing area in Bali is in Kintamani, Bangli Regency.
Coffee farmers in the Kintamani plantation use a traditional subak abian farming system. The traditional system holds fast to the Hindu philosophy, Tri Hita Karana. This philosophy teaches about harmonious relations with nature and reduces the use of agrochemicals so that the coffee is organic.
Not only famous for its traditional rites and culture, Toraja is also famous for its coffee. Coffee from plantations in Toraja is famous for its deliciousness and has a relatively high level of acidity.
Distinctive flavors are also produced from the post-harvest process. Most Toraja farmers process their coffee in the traditional way, which is often referred to as wet milling. This process is known internationally as wet hulling or semi-washed.
7. Flores Bajawa
One area on Flores Island which is famous for its coffee is Bajawa, a city in Ngada Regency, East Nusa Tenggara. The type of coffee grown in Bajawa is arabica.
In addition to the beautiful island of Flores, the land also contains ash from volcanoes (andosol) which is ideal for growing organic coffee. Therefore, the taste of the coffee is more authentic and contains natural scents.
8. Papua Wamena
Wamena coffee is grown on plantations located along the Baliem Valley. The valley is located on the east side of Mount Jayawijaya and surrounds the City of Wamena.
The taste is not inferior to other types of archipelago coffee. The level of acidity tends to be low so it doesn’t cause gastric pain for lay drinkers. The aroma that is characteristic is the fragrant floral sensation.
Types of Coffee from the way of brewing
Another point of view about what some people consider to be a type of coffee is the types of coffee drinks. In the following, we will review some drinks that are the mainstay menu in many coffee shops.
1. Espresso Based
Espresso was born in Europe when people wanted their coffee prepared quickly. For this reason, espresso machines were born which made it easy for coffee shops to serve customers. Espresso is also the foundation or basic ingredients of other drinks as will be mentioned below.
Espresso is a dark black drink with a characteristic thick brown foam on its surface called crema. Manufacturing using high-pressure brewing machines. Generally, a cup of espresso only contains 30-45 ml.
Americano is espresso with additional hot water. It is said that americano was born from the habit of Americans drinking thinner espresso.
c. Long Black
Long black is a drink with the same composition as americano, which consists of espresso and hot water. It’s just a different way of casting. Americano is made with espresso doused with hot water, while long black is made by pouring espresso in hot water.
Cappuccino is a drink made from 1/3 espresso, 1/3 steamed milk, and 1/3 foam. Some people sprinkle chocolate powder on the foam to make it look sweeter.
In plain view, a latte is similar to a cappuccino. Latte composition consists of 1/3 espresso and 2/3 steamed milk. The foam used to make a latte is not as thick as a cappuccino. Some reliable baristas make paintings when pouring milk and call it latte art.
Just like a latte and cappuccino, macchiato is a mixture of espresso and milk. The name macchiato comes from the Italian word meaning sign or blotch. The purpose of this naming maybe that espresso is given a little speck of steamed milk or it can also be milk that is speckled with espresso.
Mochaccino is a mixture of espresso, chocolate, and steamed milk. This drink has many other names, including mocha, mocha, and café mocha. The name mochaccino comes from a city that has a large history of coffee, namely Mocha, Yemen.
h. Black eye
Unlike americano and long black, a black eye is espresso added with black coffee. Keep in mind that black coffee here is different from espresso that is made with pressure. While black coffee is made by brewing with a manual brew, or it can be with percolators.
i. Con Panna
Con panna is a drink made from espresso topped with whipped cream. This cream is intended to reduce the bitter taste in espresso.
Do you know what gelato is? Yes, gelato is a typical Italian ice cream. One or two spoonfuls of gelato if doused with espresso will become a beverage called affogato.
2. Brew Brew
Some of the coffee dishes previously described are espresso-based. Generally made using automatic tools or machines. While coffee drinks made by relying on hands and human power are called manual brew. Here are some popular brew manual brewing methods.
a. Moka Pot
Moka pot is a tool for making espresso manually. This traditional coffee maker comes from Italy, invented by Alfonso Bialetti in 1933.
How to use this tool is to heat it on the stove or stove. Because it is made manually, the taste is different from espresso in general.
b. Rok Presso
Just like moka pots, Rok Presso is also an alternative tool for making espresso. Unlike the engine, the pressure generated from this tool comes from human power. The trick is to press the two levers on the Presso Skirt by hand.
c. Coffee Tubruk
Pulp coffee is the easiest and simplest brewing method. This method is derived from the culture of copying Indonesian people. As the name suggests, the only way to make it is to crush coffee grounds with hot water.
d. Pour Over
Some people when referring to manual brew will refer to the pour over technique. This brewing method, although it looks simple, is actually tricky. Need the right ratio, hand skills, and instincts.
Pour over brewing technique is done by running water on coffee grounds on the filter and dripper. The flow of water that has passed through the coffee grounds then drops into a serving glass. The tools for supporting pour over techniques that are famous include V60, Chemex, and Kalita Wave.
e. Vietnamese Drip
Vietnamese drip is another designation of a typical Vietnamese milk coffee dish. The mention was due to its manufacture using a filter or dripper which came to be known as Vietnam dripper. The filter or dripper where the coffee grounds are brewed is placed on a glass that has been filled with sweetened condensed milk.
f. French Press
Another method of manually brewing coffee is to use a device called a French press. The brewing method is the same as brewed coffee. It’s just that, the French press has a plunger that acts as a filter so that the coffee grounds fall at the bottom of the French press.
Get to know the types of coffee from several perspectives
It is better to know and understand the types of coffee and various terms in the world of coffee. That way, you not only get the pleasure of coffee but also get knowledge about the ins and outs.
Thus the description of the types of coffee from several points of view. I hope it can help you in learning the ins and outs of the world of coffee.