Coffee variety is a term that refers to the coffee subspecies. It could be due to natural mutations, it could also be due to man-made.
Popular Arabica coffee varieties:
- Mundo novo.
- Villa Sarchi.
- Ethiopian heirloom.
Hybrid coffee varieties:
- Timor or hibrido de timor.
Coffee varieties may be one of the topics often discussed by coffee addicts. In addition to varieties, there is also the term single origin that also appears in the conversation. However, many people confuse or confuse variety with a single origin.
Read too: Coffee: History, Types, Coffee Benefits
Variety is a term that refers to a subspecies of planted coffee seeds. Different from varieties, single-origin is a term to identify the origin of the coffee beans planted.
Besides varieties, maybe you have also heard about the term cultivar. What is the difference between the two?
Coffee varieties are a general term for coffee subspecies. While cultivars are cultivated varieties or varieties of coffee cultivated by humans. Cultivar cultivation is done by developing or crossing varieties to get superior coffee plants.
Popular Arabica Coffee Varieties
In the article on history and types of coffee, it is explained that there are three species or types of coffee that are popular commodities in the world, namely arabica, robusta, and liberika. Of the three, arabica is the species that has the highest level of production in the world than any other species. Approximately, 70% of the world coffee trade is dominated by arabica, 28% robusta, and 2% liberika along with other types of coffee.
Each coffee species has many variety or subspecies. Coffee varieties can occur because of natural mutations, it could also be due to human cultivation to produce new varieties. Most people use the term variety, even though all the popular coffee plants consumed are cultivars or cultivated products.
The following are some of the varieties of arabica coffee that is popular in the world.
Typica is the oldest arabica coffee varieties and the father of most varieties. It is said that typica and bourbon are the main coffee beans taken from Ethiopia and brought to Yemen.
This variety is among the most important types of arabica and contributes to the development of coffee varieties in the world. First taken from Yemen and spread to Malabar, India. From India, brought to Indonesia by the Dutch during colonialism.
Typica is the first arabica coffee to enter Indonesia. This coffee variety was declared extinct due to leaf rust pest. However, there are still varieties of derivative typica in Indonesia, namely fat and sidikalang.
Like typica, bourbon is also a variety that plays an important role in the development of coffee varieties in the world. Both typica and bourbon are believed to be the main seeds taken directly from Ethiopia and brought by the Arabs to Yemen.
This variety was born from arabica which was brought by the French from Yemen, then planted on Bourbon Island (now La Reunion Island). Arabica plants interact with different climates and soils, causing mutations. Become a new variety called bourbon with a sweeter taste than typica.
Bourbon has red fruit. However, sometimes bourbon has a natural mutation. Two new varieties were born, namely yellow bourbon and orange bourbon. Yellow bourbon has a more acidic and finer taste than ordinary bourbon, while orange bourbon is a combination of ordinary yellow and bourbon.
Geisha is an authentic Arabica coffee variety. The name is taken from the name of the area where this coffee was first planted, namely Gesha. This area is located in the western part of Ethiopia. Because people often say the word wrong, the name Gesha coffee changes to geisha coffee.
In the 1960s, geisha began to grow in Panama. Starting from Panama, geisha became known as the best type of coffee in the world. In 2004, geisha won the Best of Panama (BOP) competition held by the Specialty Coffee Association of Panama. Since then, the popularity of geisha has exploded throughout the world.
Geisha coffee is known for its delicate jasmine aroma. Its acidity level is soft and contains fruit flavor. The higher the plantation area, the more luxurious the quality of the geisha.
4. Mundo Novo
Mundo novo is the result of a natural cross between bourbon and typica found in Sao Paulo, Brazil. Seeds from the plant were then planted in the city of Novo Mundo. Therefore, the new variety that was born in 1943 is called mundo novo.
Caturra is a natural mutation of the bourbon variety that first grew in Brazil. This plant is stunted due to mutations. This chessra variety has a smooth body character and a lower level of sweetness than bourbon.
Apart from chess, there are several more names due to mutations from bourbon. Among them are pointu, semperlorens, SL34, tekisik, villa sarchi, and pacas.
6. Villa Sarchi
Villa sarchi is a mutation of bourbon that grows in Sarchi, a city in Costa Rica. This variety has the character of sweet and sour taste that fits with strong fruit tones.
Tekisik is bourbon which has been selected and developed by the Salvadoran Institute for Coffee Research (ISIC) in El Salvador. The size of the fruit and seeds are small, and productivity is low.
Pacas is a natural mutation of bourbon. Similar to chessra in Brazil and villa sarchi in Costa Rica.
This mutation plant has a single gene that causes its small size (dwarfism). The small size of the plant leads to the potential results. Placement of plants with one another can be closed so that it is easy in the process of care and harvesting.
It is said that sidikalang is an Arabica coffee variety directly derived from the oldest variety taken from Ethiopia, namely typica. Previously brought by the Dutch to Indonesia and cultivated it with the Cultivation System.
Sidikalang is a city in North Sumatra located in the cool, mountainous regions. The city is also one of Indonesia’s coffee-producing regions whose names may already be familiar to connoisseurs of single-origin coffee. In addition to sidikalang, there are more sub-varieties of the original typica that grows in Indonesia, namely fat, blue, and java.
Catuai coffee varieties have fruits that are generally red and yellow. Catuai has a high level of acidity. This variety is a derivative of chessra which is crossed with a variety from Brazil, mundo novo.
Catuai can produce incomparable pleasure when brewed, even when the seeds are roasted to dark. Catuai variety plants are widely cultivated in Indonesia and South America.
11. Ethiopian Heirloom
As the country of origin of the Coffea plant, Ethiopia still has many varieties of native Arabica coffee that is not derived from typica. There are thousands of varieties that grow wild in Ethiopia as a result of interbreeding that occurs for hundreds of years. However, there is little botanical information about these varieties. For this reason, the name heirloom emerged, a name that represents wild varieties in Ethiopia.
Robusta Coffee Variety
Actually, Robusta coffee is one of the original varieties of Coffea canephora, namely Coffea canephora var. Robusta There are at least two main varieties of Coffea canephora, namely Robusta and Nganda. The most striking difference between the two is the shape of the plant. Robusta varieties grow upwards while growing nganda spreads. Most of the planted canephora are Robusta varieties, so the name Robusta is synonymous with Canephora.
You might be wondering why this article is more about Arabica coffee varieties. The reason is that Robusta is not like Arabica which has many varieties or cultivars. When viewed historically, robusta only began to be cultivated at the end of the 19th century as a substitute for arabica which is vulnerable to leaf rust pests.
Before the end of the 19th century, arabica was the belle of all coffee in the world. However, outbreaks of leaf rust attack and devastate Arabica coffee plantations. Several countries began to replace arabica with other types of coffee, including Indonesia which at that time under the Dutch Colonial Government introduced Robusta coffee.
Robusta coffee is very resistant to pests and easy to maintain, but its fruit quality is lower than Arabica. The price is also cheaper than Arabica which is still the desire of people around the world. Because of this arabica is more developed, so arabica varieties or cultivars are more diverse than robusta.
Hybrid varieties are cultivars which are direct descendants of crossing with different types or species. This crossing is done to produce superior varieties that have advantages of each type that is crossed. In addition, it also aims to give birth to plants that are good and resistant to pests, soil conditions, and climate in a particular place. The following are some of the popular hybrid coffee varieties.
Timor varieties are a cross between Arabica coffee and Robusta. This variety is also known as hibrido de timor.
The name Timor is taken from the place where this plant was developed, namely Timor Island. This coffee variety began to be developed in the 1940s. The purpose of this cross is to produce coffee that is resistant to leaf rust but has the distinctive taste and aroma of Arabica coffee.
In addition to Timor, there are still several varieties of the cross between the types of Arabica and Robusta coffee. One of them who came from Indonesia is Bogor Prada.
Catimor is the result of a crossing between chess and timor coffee varieties. As the purpose of this cross between species of coffee, catimor is intended to inherit the nature of both chess and timor. Catimor has resistance to leaf rust pests such as timor varieties and harvest speeds such as chessra.
Catimor plants are small (dwarfism), but the seeds are quite large. Because of the robusta element contained in this variety, the bitter taste is more pronounced than the sour taste.
S228 or known by another name as the S line is a hybrid coffee variety from India. This variety is a cross between Arabica coffee and liberika. In addition to S228, this cross between arabica and liberika also produces S26, Kalimantan, and Kawisari coffee varieties.
Dig Insights into the Coffee You Drink
Actually there are many more varieties of coffee that are spread in the world and have not been mentioned. This article is only a general knowledge and introduction for those of you who want to explore the ins and outs of the world of coffee. Therefore, the descriptions of the varieties above are those that are popular and are crowded and consumed and discussed by coffee connoisseurs.
Thus a review of the varieties of coffee that are popular in the world. You can rea other articles to add insight about the coffee you drink. I hope you can help and happy coffee!